The Four Cornerstones Of 4ps’ Precision Medicine


Healthcare technology has been swiftly advancing and reforming our world drastically, thanks to the development of major technological pillars such as IoT, Big Data, AI, VR, Advanced Analytics. The healthcare approach is now much more holistic, covering all stages from.

  1. Predicting potential diseases.

  2. Prevention of those diseases.

  3. Personalized treatment for individuals.


To bind the practices together, active Participation from the patient is required. We, as individuals, are playing a much bigger role in maintaining our health, including keeping a healthy diet, smoke-free and alcohol-free lifestyle.

These aspects are called 4Ps’ of Precision Medicine


The 4Ps Of Precision Medicine, Shifting The Paradigm


Instead of putting the sole focus on treating, this 4-part medicine model follows the patient, collects their health data and constantly makes decisions to ensure his well being, given enough information


1. Prediction


The first element of this model is Prediction, whichincludes early detection of disease development, through habitual tendencies (with the help of AI and big data), or the presence of prodromal signs.


This element continues even after the diseases have already manifested. It is then used to determine the progression of the diseases as well as most effective treatments for the individuals.


2. Prevention



The second element, Prevention, takes place when personalized preventive measures are introduced to minimize the likelihood of disease while maintaining wellness. Keeping a healthy lifestyle and having regular medical checkups and screenings are common good practices.


3. Personalization


Thirdly, Personalization was introduced as no individual is entirely similar, they require different sets of health maintenance, protection and management.


Using genetic, environmental, biomedical, and lifestyle details of individuals, we can generate better genome understanding, intervention and treatments for them.


4. Participation



Lastly, Participation is the involvement of the individual in the 3 strategies above. It shifts their role from a passive receiver of care to an active, aware and responsible driver of their wellness


Participation is the latest cornerstone but it has been labeled as the “driving force for revolutionizing healthcare” by Hood and Auffrey (fathers of the 4Ps model).


Tam Vu - CEO/founder of Earable, inspired by this 4Ps model, has strategized, applied at MNSLabs of University of Oxford and University Of Colorado Boulder, where he has directed for 7 years. He has developed, patented the technology, and created healthcare applications that can touch all of the 4 cornerstones, with the focus being brain health.


Real Life Applications Of The Model

Let’s explore ways constant monitoring of the brain, one of the core technologies at Earable, can help a person maintain their physical and mental health, predict as well as manage diseases.


Closed-loop sleep monitoring


Sleep is crucially vital. It consumes a third of our life but enables us to increase the quality of the other two thirds. It determines whether you have the energy for


When it comes to sleep monitoring, most people turn to smartwatches and fitness trackers rather than hospital-grade polysomnography machines, for obvious reasons. Interpolation of movements and some non-neurological biodata can provide a view of sleep; it lacks the accuracy and entirety that neuro-monitoring gives.


From thousands of hours of raw neurological data (EEG, EMG, EOG) and hypnograms (sleep snapshots) collected, we were able to to determine, with extremely high accuracy


  1. Stages, or the “deepness”, of sleep. This can determine not only if a person sleeps enough, but also if they have sufficient restorative sleep. With enough data collected over time, we can predict, warn of disease risks. Common diseases associated with the lack of sleep are cardiac diseases, stroke, dementia, diabetes and even cancer. Approximately half of stroke survivors have insomnia.

  2. Sleepiness level during the day. An obvious sign of sleep deprivation is excessive daytime sleepiness. Common symptoms are reduced alertness, irritation, trouble focusing and memorizing. They can lead to serious consequences including increased risk of traffic and work accidents, decreased productivity and even relationship problems.


Having real-time objective data of the two allows us to predict potential risk of diseases, as well as the timely necessary habit coaching to prevent and manage them.


Our Path To The Higher Performance, Less Diseased World

By the same measure, we can apply our technology in all-day realtime attention/focus monitoring, blood-glucose monitoring (for hyperglycemia), and blood pressure monitoring (for cardiac diseases) to incorporate all cornerstones of the 4Ps model in medicine.


As technology becomes an integral part of medicine and adoption of the model increases, it will soon be even more reliable and seamless.


Sources:

The Patient-Centered Decision System as per the 4Ps of Precision Medicine

Sleep and Stroke | Stroke

Excessive Sleepiness: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments



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